Nomads of Shahson
Nomadism is a human life that emerged after a migration and its history dates back to 12,000 years ago, and the history of the Shahson nomads is related to the tribes and Turkmens of the Ghaz Turks, who lived a nomadic life in the east of the Caspian Sea from the distant past. It is related that around 1000 years ago, they left for Khorasan and after the rebellion against Muhammad Ghaznavi, they went to the plains and slopes of Mount Sablan, and some of them started living in Ardabil and some of them in Mughan Plain. Since then, the Turkish language has spread among the residents of Azerbaijan, which is now called the Azeri language.
The nomadic population of the province consists of two large clans, the Shahson clan with 93.4 percent, the Qara Dagh clan with 1.5 percent of the population, and the two independent Shatranlu clans with 3.8 percent and the independent Fuladalu clan with 1.3 percent. This number of nomads live in 572 Qeshlaqs, 7 biomes, 22 development centers and 1527 Ubes, and in total, the nomads of the province consist of 45 clans. to give
Economic status of Shahson nomads
The fertile Mughan plain in the wide plain of Ardabil and affected by the weather and climatic conditions of Mount Sablan is one of the most productive places in the country, and the Shahson nomads in the Qashlaqi region are assigned to themselves in the autumn and winter seasons, in other words, the “Qashlaqi period”. Migration is one of the necessities of nomadic life, which includes vertical migration and horizontal migration, which in Ardabil province is vertical and starts from the lowest altitude (5 meters above sea level) and continues up to an altitude of 4500 meters. This migration continues for more than 400 kilometers, which includes spring migration and autumn migration. Spring migration usually starts 45 days after Eid and lasts for 15 to 20 days, and autumn migration starts from mid or late September and lasts for 40 to 45 days. Of course, it is important to mention that the start time of spring and autumn migration and the duration of grazing in intermediate pastures depends on the climate and weather conditions, which can slightly change the duration of migration.
History of Shahson nomads
The Shahsons are groups of Iranian Turkish clans that were organized by Shah Abbas I to secure the position of the Qazalbash Turkic clans.
Nader Shah Afshar united some of these clans under the leadership of a person named Badr Khan from Sari Khan Biglo clan.
In the 18th century, as a result of internal competition in the Badr Khan Shahson family, it was divided into two confederations, which have since been called the Shahsons of Ardabil and Meshginshahr.
At the beginning of the 19th century, each of the two confederations called El was led by one of the descendants of Badr Khan with the nickname El Begi.